Medical oncology is a cancer treatment modality that encompasses chemotherapy, immunotherapy,
hormone therapy, biological therapy, targeted therapy, and precision therapy. While surgical
oncology and radiation oncology are forms of local therapy for the clinically visible tumor, systemic
therapy employed by the best medical oncologists takes care of both the visible tumor and micro-
tumor (tumor cells circulating in the bloodstream and not visible by imaging as well). For Locally
advanced tumors, Systemic therapy in combination with Surgical Oncology or Radiation Oncology
(also called the Multimodality approach) helps achieve the maximum possible cure rates.
Treatment Approached in Medical Oncology By Medical Oncologist:
Chemotherapy is the usage of certain medications which are preferentially toxic to cancer.
Chemotherapy, otherwise called cytotoxic therapy, inhibits or slows down the growth of
abnormally dividing cells (cancer cells) in the body. Chemotherapy is accepted today worldwide as
a standard and successful modality of cancer treatment. But, if not employed by experienced
medical oncologists, the use of chemotherapy can lead to considerable side effects. Just like a
weapon, when chemotherapy is used by skilful and experienced clinicians, side effects are minimal
and manageable. If not used judiciously, chemotherapy can cause major complications as well.
Targeted therapy is a type of cutting-edge cancer treatment in which the medication targets a
certain gene or protein because these genes and proteins are found in cancer cells and may aid in
cancer cell proliferation.
A Cancer patient who has either progressed on chemotherapy or are deemed to be unable to
tolerate chemotherapy benefit from this therapeutic strategy which involves modulating and
escalating the body’s immune attack against the cancer cells and increasing the body's natural
defense systems. Rather than attacking cancer directly, this treatment focuses on the immune
system and activates the immune system. Immunotherapy aims to prevent cancer cells from
spreading to other areas of the body by slowing or stopping their growth. Immunotherapy includes
monoclonal antibodies and tumor-agnostic treatments, as well as non-specific immunotherapies
including cancer vaccines, oncolytic virus therapy, and T-cell therapy. The best medical oncologist
at Astra Cancer Hospital would closely interact with the patient to understand the need and
concerns of the patient for better care.
Cancer is a hormone-dependent or hormone-sensitive disease wherein hormones have been used
to grow or develop. Hormone treatment drugs halt or slow the production of hormones in the body,
which inhibits the growth of cancer cells.
At Astra Cancer Hospital , the best medical oncologist in Bangalore, you can seek the best treatment
Surgical oncology in which a surgical oncologist, a medical specialty focused on the surgery for the
holistic cancer treatment, including cancers that are advanced and complicated. Its primary goal is
to identify and eliminate cancerous tumors from your body. They can also diagnose whether or not
you have cancer and whether it has migrated to other areas of the body. The surgical oncologists
will collaborate with the rest of the team to predict and manage surgery side effects, which include
nutritionists, rehabilitation therapists, and naturopathic physicians.
The kind, size, location, grade, and stage of the tumour, as well as general health considerations like
your age, physical fitness, and any concurrent medical issues, determine whether you are a
candidate for surgery.
When Should You Make an Appointment with a Surgical Oncologist?
Which Cancers are Treated by Cancer Surgeon?
- Patients see surgical oncologists for suspected cancer issues in addition to cancer
treatment. For example, a tumour in the breast, thyroid swelling
- Precancerous conditions are assessed and treated. Leucoplakia, or a white patch in the2
mouth, is an example of ex leucoplakia.
- Self-examination for cancer
- After cancer treatment, it's important to follow up
At Astra Cancer Hospital , a Best cancer surgery in Bangalore, You can seek a onco surgeon’s help
for The cancers treated by surgical oncologists are
What are the Benefits of Getting Cancer Treated by a Surgical Oncologist?
- Oral cancers
- Thyroid cancers
- Breast Cancer
- Lung cancer
- Esophageal cancers
- Stomach Cancers
- Liver and pancreatic cancers
- Colon and rectal cancer
- Ovarian cancer
- Uterine and cervical cancer
- Soft tissue sarcomas
- Kidney and bladder cancers
Seeing a best surgical oncologist in Bangalore, a cancer expert, might help you get a quicker
diagnosis and more appropriate tests. This will save not just time and money, but it will also
improve treatment outcomes.
Instead of just surgery, surgical oncologists can discuss with you about your entire treatment plan
and guide you through it. In some cases, it may be desirable to use chemotherapy and radiation
before surgery. The surgical oncologist is the ideal person to talk to about the need for additional
treatment after surgery, such as radiation or chemotherapy.
Astra Cancer Hospital is a having the team of best pediatric hematology and oncology, and they
understand how to evaluate and treat young children and teenagers in a way that makes them feel
at ease. Most pediatric oncologists/pediatric hematologist's offices are designed and decorated
specifically for children and teenagers, and the clinical staff has extensive experience and
competence working with these patient groups.
At Astra Cancer Hospital , the best pediatric oncologist in Bangalore focuses on diagnosing
childhood cancers and delivers the best cancer treatment for the child. Treatments for children's
cancer are more effective than adults. In addition to cancer, children are less prone than adults to
have other diseases. This indicates that the bodies of children and adolescents can withstand more
abrasive treatments than the bodies of adults.
There are two forms of Cancer in children:
Types Of Pediatric Cancer
- Cancers of the Blood (Hematological)
- Solid Tumours – Tumours that develop from other organs
Diagnosing Childhood Cancer
- Tumors of the spinal cord and brain
- Wilms tumor
Pediatric oncologists discuss the child's medical history, symptoms, and family history of cancer. If
a family member has had cancer, some children are more likely to have cancer. The doctor may also
ask your child's imaging tests such as X-rays or MRIs to screen for symptoms of cancer. They might
also suggest a "biopsy" for a child.
Types of Treatments
There are several cancer treatments available. The type of treatment a child with cancer receives is
determined by the type of cancer and the stage of the disease. Common treatments include
- Radiation Therapy
- Stem cell transplant
Radiation Therapy is often known as radiotherapy. Radiation oncologist uses a type of radiation
that beams to destroy cancer cells. It functions by using a linear accelerator to deliver high-energy
x-rays (photons). These non-invasive, painless therapeutic x-rays are used to treat a variety of
cancers. Radiation kills or slows cancer cells' growth by damaging their DNA at high doses. Cancer
cells that had their DNA damaged beyond repair will either halt dividing or die. When damaged
cells die, they are broken down and removed from the body.
Radiation treatment does not immediately kill cancer cells. It takes days or weeks of treatment
before cancer cells' DNA is broken enough to kill them. After that, cancer cells continue to die for
weeks or months after radiation therapy is completed. At Astra Cancer Hospital , radiation
oncologists give complete information to the patient for better understanding.
Types of Radiation Therapy
External beam and internal radiation therapy are the two main types.
- External beam is the most effective type of radiation. High-energy beams originate from a
machine outside of the body that targets the beams at a specific location on the body during
this sort of radiation.
- Brachytherapy is another type in which the radiation is delivered directly to the body (brak-
Radiation therapy destroys cells by altering the genetic code that regulates cell growth and division.
While both healthy and cancerous cells are damaged by radiation, the goal of a radiation oncologist
is to induce as minimal damage to normal, healthy cells as possible. Radiation-damaged cells are
frequently repaired by normal cells.
Commonly Used Ionizing Radiation are of Two Types
What Is The Importance of Radiation Therapy?
Radiation therapy is performed by radiation oncologists in the treatment of more than half of all
persons with cancer. Radiation treatment is used to treat almost every type of cancer, and some
non-cancerous (benign) tumors can also be addressed.
This is one of the most cost-effective and most common cancer treatments. With cancer being the
primary cause of death worldwide, it's never been more essential to invest in enhancing radiation
oncology and assisting cancer patients. While it's essential to keep in mind that each cancer and
each person are unique, radiation treatment is usually the treatment of choice and some essential.
At Astra Cancer Hospital , the best radiation oncologist in Bangalore understands the patient's
concerns and works closely with the patient to deliver successful treatment.
Hematology-oncology is a medical speciality that integrates the fields of hematology by hemato
oncologists, which is the study of blood physiology, with oncology being the study of cancer. This
branch of medicine identifies and cures malignant blood disorders and malignancies and the
symptoms and tumors that emerge from these diseases (if present). The science or study of blood,
blood-forming organs, and blood diseases is known as hematology. A hematologist is a physician
who specializes in the treatment, diagnosis, and prevention of blood abnormalities. Cancers of the
blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes are known as hematological cancers. Depending on the type
of blood cell damaged, this tumor is known as leukemia, lymphoma, or myeloma.
Red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells, and plasma are the four components of blood that assist
in oxygenating our organs and tissues, fighting infections, and forming clots to stop bleeding. On the
other hand, these factors could indicate the presence of anomalies that could develop into blood
cancer. This is where hematology-oncology comes into play.
You Can Seek a Hematologist’s Help For:
Diagnosis & Treating Blood Cancers:
- Very High or very low Hemoglobin (red blood cells)
- Platelet counts that are extremely low or extremely high
- Blood clots
- Excessive bleeding
- Leukemia, Lymphoma, Multiple Myeloma: cancers in bone marrow or lymph nodes
- Thalassemia, Sickle cell anemia
- Myelofibrosis, Myelodysplastic Syndrome
- Bone Marrow Transplantation
Bone Marrow Transplantation
- Blood cancer treatment, like any other type of cancer, must be personalized for each patient
by a hemato oncologist.
- Many lymphomas and myelomas are staged using PET and MRI studies
- Patients with lymphoma or myeloma require a broader spectrum of medications, including Bone Marrow Transplantation and Immunotherapy
Bone marrow transplantation, also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, is a medical
procedure that restores bone marrow that has been injured or destroyed by disease,
chemotherapy, or infection. Blood stem cells are transplanted into the bone marrow during this
procedure, where they produce new blood cells and induce the formation of new marrow.
Immunotherapy is a biological treatment. This is a cutting-edge cancer treatment that enhances the
body's natural defence mechanisms in the battle against cancer. Cells or chemicals produced by the
body or in a laboratory are utilised to improve and restore the immune system's ability to find and
destroy cancer cells.
Breast cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell multiplication within the breast, which
commonly presents as a lump. Cancer is essentially uncontrolled cell multiplication. Once the cells
multiply, they move to distant locations via blood or lymph. Any organ in the human body can be
affected by cancer cells. The breast is one of the most commonly affected organs by cancer, and it
has gotten a lot of attention.
Types of Breast Cancers
How is Breast Cancer Diagnosed?
- Invasive ductal carcinoma
- Invasive lobular carcinoma
- Lobular carcinoma in situ
- Ductal carcinoma in situ
- Phyllodes tumor
Early identification of disease has received a lot of attention in recent years. Mammogram screening
is advised for healthy females who have no complaints. Mammograms can identify lumps as small
as 1/16th the size of masses found by clinical examination. All ladies over the age of 40 are advised
to obtain a mammogram every year.
Breast ultrasonography is favoured in younger females since the information provided by
mammography is limited due to thick breasts.
Breast Cancer Treatments
Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are all available as treatments. Depending on the
stage of the disease, either one, two, or all three treatment modalities may be required. Earlier the
only surgery performed was a mastectomy in which the entire breast was removed, but now more
and more attempts are made to preserve the breast in suitable patients. There are many options
available now within chemotherapy and radiation also.
Breast Cancer Causes
Though many factors are known to causes predispose a lady to develop this disease, we cannot
pinpoint specific factors in most ladies who develop this disease. Certain instances run in families,
but this does not mean that one is likely to get the disease just because a close relative has a history
or has undergone breast cancer treatment. The majority of the women who develop this disease do
not have a genetic component. Genetic tests to look for mutations may be performed if there is an
exceptionally high incidence of the family history.
Similarly, there are other risk factors like the use of estrogen replacement pills after menopause,
early menarche, and late menopause, and not having to breastfeed the children. These factors, too,
are known to predispose females to this disease but need not be present in everyone suffering from
this disease. Breast cancer awareness will assist females in detecting the disease early, reducing the
burden of treatment, and improving treatment outcomes as this cancer is becoming more
Gastrointestinal cancer (GI cancer) refers to cancers of the esophagus, pancreas, stomach, colon,
rectum, anus, liver, biliary system, and small intestine that affect the gastrointestinal tract and other
organs contained within the digestive system. These malignant gastric tumors, often known as
stomach cancer, are most frequently reported in people aged 50 to 70. Males, on the other hand,
have a higher risk of having them.
We Provide The Most Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancer Treatments For Below Cancer Types:
Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Cancer
- Esophageal cancer
- Gastric (stomach) cancer
- Colorectal cancer
- Pancreatic cancer
- Liver cancer
- Neuroendocrine cancer
The doctor will perform a few examinations to evaluate general health signs if a patient has
symptoms of gastrointestinal cancer. This includes looking for signs of disease, such as tumors or
anything unusual, and inquiring about the patient’s health history. Complete blood tests and blood
counts are taken to analyze the number of RBC, WBC, platelets, and hemoglobin amounts in red
The doctor will also suggest taking other tests like:
How are Gastrointestinal Cancers Treated?
- Endoscopy or esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
- Tissue biopsies to look for cancer cells
- A series of x-rays of the esophagus and stomach are taken during a barium swallow
- Imaging studies (MRI, X-rays, ultrasound, CT scan, or PET scan) to see if there is any
abnormal tissue in the digestive system
There are different types of standard treatment for gastrointestinal cancers. These treatments
depend on the cancer location, stage, and severity. The doctor considers your overall health and
preferences before therapy.
- Surgery: Surgery aims to remove all of the cancerous tissue and some of the good tissue
- Subtotal Gastrectomy– The removal of a portion of the stomach. The surgeon removes the
cancerous part of the stomach and some of the healthy tissue surrounding it.
- Total Gastrectomy– The removal of the entire stomach. The surgeon removes a full
stomach and some surrounding tissue.
- Radiation Therapy
- Targeted drug therapy
Gynecologic oncology is the branch of study that deals with treating cancers of the female
reproductive tract. It is characterised as abnormal cell development that begins in the female
reproductive organs. It starts within a woman's pelvis, beneath the stomach, and between the hip
Each gynecologic cancer is distinct, with different signs and symptoms, risk factors, and prevention
techniques. These cancers affect all women, and the risk increases with age. Treatment is most
successful when these cancers are discovered early.
Most Common Gynecological Cancer
Astra Cancer Hospital , we have one of the best gynecologic oncologist in Bangalore.
There are six major types of cancer depending on the parts of the female reproductive tract.
Diagnosis Of Gynecological Cancer:
- Cervical cancer
- Vaginal cancer
- Ovarian cancer
- Vulvar cancer
- Uterine cancer
- Fallopian cancer
Regular visits to your gynecologist can aid in the detection of early signs of gynecological cancer.
During your pelvic exam, the doctor will examine for lumps and irregularities on the vagina, cervix,
ovaries, uterus, and vulva. The presence of cancer cells on the cervix is diagnosed through a Pap
If your doctor suspects cancer, they may conduct imaging tests such as:
- CT scan or an MRI will be performed to determine the extent of the malignancy.
The doctor may use additional procedures to screen for gynecological cancer, such as:
: Using a lighted magnifying lens to examine the cervix and vagina.
Dilation and curettage
: Dilating the cervix to remove aberrant tissue from the cervical canal and
Loop electrosurgical excision procedure
: To extract cells and tissue heated wire loop is used.
: During procedures, a little sample of tissue is taken.
: A thin, illuminated tube is introduced to transmit images to a video monitor through
a small incision in the lower belly.
Gynecological Cancer Treatment In Bangalore
There are different types of standard treatment for gynecological cancer. These treatments depend
on cancer's location, stage, and severity. The doctor considers your overall health and preferences
- Radiation Therapy
- Targeted drug therapy
"Head and neck cancer" refers to cancers that develop in or around the throat, larynx/voice box, nose, sinuses, and mouth. Squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck are the name for these
cancers. Squamous cell carcinomas can also start in the salivary glands, sinuses, muscles, or nerves
of the head and neck, but these tumors are far less prevalent than squamous cell carcinomas.
What are the Types of Head & Neck Cancer?
Head & Neck Cancer Causes
- Oral cancer
- Nasal cavity and sinus paranasales cancer
- Laryngeal cancer
- Hypopharyngeal cancer
- Nasal cavity and sinus paranasales cancer
- Salivary gland cancer
- Tonsil cancer
- Oropharyngeal cancer
Listed few common causes for head and neck cancers:
How Head & Neck Cancer Is Diagnosed?
- Tobacco and alcohol abuse, including secondhand smoke and smokeless tobacco
(sometimes known as "chewing tobacco" or "snuff")
- Infection with cancer-causing strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV
type 16, is linked to oropharyngeal malignancies of the tonsils and base of the tongue
- The usage of paan (betel quid) in the mouth, which is a common practice in Southeast Asia,
has been linked to a higher risk of mouth cancer
- Radiation exposure to the head and neck, whether for noncancerous or cancerous
disorders, is a risk factor for salivary gland cancer.
- Genetic abnormalities that lie under the surface. Some hereditary conditions, such as
Fanconi’s anemia, might raise the chance of precancerous lesions and malignancies forming
early in life.
Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of
treatments may be used to treat head and neck cancer. The treatment approach for an individual
patient is determined by various criteria, including the tumor's location, cancer stage, and the
patient's age and general condition.
Treatment Options For Head & Neck Cancer
Our multidisciplinary head & neck cancer will answer your concerns and make treatment
recommendations based on your specific diagnosis and needs. The following are some of the
treatments for head and neck cancers:
- Targeted therapy
- Radiation therapy
Uro oncology, also known as Urologic Oncology, is a branch of medicine deals with the study of
urinary system malignancies. It includes kidney, prostate, testicular, and bladder cancer. There are
several forms of urological cancer. Both men and women can develop kidney and bladder cancer.
Other forms include testicular cancer in males and vaginal cancer in women. An uro oncologist, also
known as a urologic oncologist, is a specialist who specialises in the diagnosis, and cancer
treatment of the urinary tract in both men and women, as well as tumors of the male reproductive
Types of Urologic Cancer
Cancer that can occur in both males and females are listed below:
Male-specific cancers are listed below:
- Kidney Cancer
- Ureter Cancer
- Urethral Cancer
- Adrenal gland cancer
- Bladder Cancer
Urological Cancer Treatment In Bangalore
- Testicular Cancer
- Penile Cancer
- Prostate Cancer
There are different types of standard treatment for urologic cancer. These treatments depend on
the cancer's location, stage, and severity. The uro oncologist considers your overall health and
preferences before therapy.
- Targeted therapy
- Radiation therapy
Cancer is not only a treatable but also a preventative disease. we aim to detect cancer at an early
stage and prevent it from spreading. According to studies, around half of all cancer cases are caused
by lifestyle choices and can be detected early on before spreading to other organs
Three Major Levels of Prevention:
level 1: Rectifying the causative factors and achieving a healthy lifestyle changes such as quitting
alcohol and tobacco, maintaining a healthy weight and taking vaccination
Level 2: Screening of cancer is a critical factor before symptoms occur so that it can be treated
Level 3: When the disease is symptomatic. Treatment is focused on delaying the progression and
preventing complications before the development of metastasis.
Preventive Oncology Services
Cancer Screening: Various medical tests are performed on asymptomatic and seemingly healthy
people to discover precancerous lesions. Breast, colon, and rectum cancers, as well as prostate and
cervical malignancies, are all screened at the Oncology OPD.
Screening for Breast Cancer
- Clinical Breast Examination (CBE)
- Colorectal Cancer Screening
- FOBT (Fecal Occult Blood Test)
- Prostate Cancer Screening
- PSA test (Biomarker Assessment)
- Cervical Cancer Screening
- Pap test
- MRI Scan
- Tobacco and Alcohol Stoppage
- Obesity management
- Vaccination for prevention of Oncogenic viruses
- Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV)
Living with cancer and enduring cancer treatment involves learning to manage symptoms and side
effects. Pain and palliative care can help in this situation. Its purpose is to alleviate pain and
discomfort for suffering from a severe sickness patient (adults and children). It's also known as
"comfort care," "supportive care", or "symptom management."
It is designed to help with symptoms like tiredness, pain, nausea, and shortness of breath. It also
assists with the emotional aspects of cancer, which aids in the management of cancer-related stress.
Patients can get treatment at an outpatient clinic, a long-term care facility, or at home under the
supervision of a physician.
Factors For Cancer Pain Relief and Palliative Care
Physical, mental impacts and cancer treatment can vary significantly from person to person. This
can address a wide range of concerns by considering an individual's specific requirements.
Pediatric Palliative Care:
- Emotional and coping difficulties
- Caregiver's needs
- Practical requirements such as financial and legal difficulties, insurance questions, and
employment concerns can all be addressed by specialists
Pediatric palliative care addresses genetic difficulties, cancer, premature birth, neurologic
disorders, heart and lung problems, and other critical medical situations in children. These
problems are characterized by pain, shortness of breath, tiredness, constipation, nausea, loss of
appetite, difficulty sleeping, anxiety, and depression. In a nutshell, it improves the quality of life for
both the child and the family.